There were an important series of papers on energy in Proceedings of the Nutrtion Society in 2003.
The first by Westerterp discussed the Impacts of vigorous and non-vigorous activity on daily energy expenditure 2003 Proceedings of the Nutrition Society vol 62, 651-661
Activity intensity is a potential determinant of activity-induced energy expenditure. Tri-axial accelerometery is the most objective measurement technique for the assessment of activity intensity, in combination with doubly-labelled water for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. Data on the effects of subject characteristics, including body size and age, and exercise training on the relationship between activity intensity and daily energy-expenditure are reviewed. Average daily metabolic rate and non-basal energy expenditure are positively related to body size. The duration and intensity of physical activities do not need to be equivalent to the energy spent on activity. Obese subjects spend more energy on physical activity but can perform fewer activities, especially high-intensity (weight-bearing) activities, because of their higher body weight. Physical activity generally declines gradually from about 60 years of age onwards. Most subjects > 80 years have an activity level well below the level defined for sedentary middle-aged adults. Spending relatively more time on low-intensity activities has a negative effect on the mean physical activity level. To obtain a higher physical activity level does not necessarily imply high-intensity activities. In an average subject 25 % of the activity-induced energy expenditure may be attributed to high-intensity activities. Exercise training, as a form of high-intensity activity, affects the physical activity level more in younger subjects than in elderly subjects.
The second by Blundell et al discusses Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? 2003 Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol 62 pp 663-666
Physical activity has the potential to modulate appetite control by improving the sensitivity of the physiological satiety signalling system, by adjusting macronutrient preferences or food choices and by altering the hedonic response to food. There is evidence for all these actions. Concerning the impact of physical activity on energy balance, there exists a belief that physical activity drives up hunger and increases food intake, thereby rendering it futile as a method of weight control. There is. however, no evidence for such an immediate or automatic effect. Short (1-2 d)-term and medium (7-16d)-term studies demonstrate that men and women can tolerate substantial negative energy balances of
- Martin Eastwood