Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying
The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is important for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. This study looked at how different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this they designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively.
An exploratory study evaluated the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to curcumin and potato protease inhibitor.
Study 2: A mechanistic study investigated the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways.
The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK.
These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation.
L Marciani1, 2013 Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 1182–1187