Age standardised mortality rates for this malignancy are 14.3 / 100,0000for men and 6.9 for women. Incidence is very geographically varied, highest in Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe and South America and lowest in parts of Africa. Half the patients have incurable cancer at presentation.
The risk factors for gastric cancer are
- Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach
- Cigarette smoking
- Alcohol intake.
- Pernicious anaemia
- Genetic predisposition.
- Nutritional factors are salt intake and use of salt based food preservatives. Such preservatives abound where there is no access to refrigerators. The incidence sharply drops with the introduction to refrigerator facilities.
A Swedish meta analysis shows a reduction of 46% incidence of gastric cancer with increased fruit and vegetable intake.
Thrumurthy et al The diagnosis and management of gastric cancer 2013 BMJ vol 347 pp 27-32