The Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower cardiovascular disease risk. Smoking may affect the strength of this association. The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between the frequency of fruit and vegetables intake and cardiovascular disease risk in male current, former and never smokers.
A prospective study in men (n=8060) aged 50–59 years who were recruited in France and Northern Ireland. The frequency of fruit and vegetables intake was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire. The outcome criteria were incident cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and total cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) over 10-year period.
A total of 367 acute coronary syndrome and 612 cardiovascular disease events occurred during the follow-up period. A multivariate analysis revealed a statistically significant interaction between smoking status and fruit and vegetables intake for acute coronary syndrome and for cardiovascular disease (both P’sIn current smokers, the relative risks for acute coronary syndrome were 0.78 (0.54–1.13) and 0.49 (0.30–0.81) in the second and third tertiles of fruit and vegetables intake, respectively (P for trendIn contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed for never and former smokers. Similar statistical interactions for acute coronary syndrome were observed for fruit intake (P=0.07) and vegetable intake (PThese results suggest that high fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in male smokers.
Dauchet et al (2010 ) Association between the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular disease in male smokers and non-smokers European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 578–586;
- Martin Eastwood